Release Date: Wednesday, November 24, 2021
       Expiration Date: Thursday, November 24, 2022


Infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria continue to challenge clinicians and are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality. Timely administration of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is a major predictor of clinical outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the challenges of these serious bacterial infections in hospitals. As clinicians gain knowledge and adjust practice behavior during these times, they can again focus on optimal utilization of antimicrobials individualized for each patient scenario. Clinical pharmacists must play a lead role in these antimicrobial stewardship efforts by providing guidance on antibiograms, proper escalation/de-escalation of therapy, and pathogen-specific approaches to management.


At the conclusion of the educational activity, the learner should be able to:

  • Explain the impact of local epidemiological trends and resistance mechanisms of Gram-negative bacteria on initial antimicrobial selection
  • Evaluate the potential role of newer and novel antimicrobial agents in targeting antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative pathogens
  • Apply antimicrobial stewardship strategies to improve appropriate use of antimicrobials
  • Utilize collaborative care model to improve patient outcomes during the pandemic era



This continuing pharmacy education activity meets the needs of pharmacists in a variety of practice settings, including large and small healthcare systems, outpatient clinics, managed care organizations, long-term care facilities, and academia. This program targets pharmacists who are at the forefront of caring for adult patients with serious bacterial infections.


This program is designed to address key unmet needs when managing serious Gram-negative bacterial infections, such as timely diagnosis, appropriate initial treatment selection, and assessing outcomes. Topics discussed include:

  • Gram-negative resistance mechanisms
  • Impact of local epidemiology
  • Clinical data of newer antimicrobials targeting MDR Gram-negative bacteria
  • Patient stratification to guide treatment selection
  • Pathogen-specific approaches when managing nosocomial pneumonia


James S. Lewis II, PharmD, FIDSA

ID Pharmacy Supervisor and Associate Professor
Oregon Health and Science University
Departments of Pharmacy and Infectious Diseases
Portland, OR




Center for Independent Healthcare Education is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider for continuing pharmacy education. Center has assigned 1.0 contact hour (0.1 CEU) of continuing pharmacy education credits for participating in this activity.

ACPE UAN: 0473-9999-21-008-H01-P
Activity type: Application-based 

For questions regarding the accreditation of this activity, please contact us at 

Method of Participation and Instruction for Credit

  1. Review the entire CPE information including target audience, learning objectives, and disclosures.
  2. Review the activity in its entirety.
  3. Complete the Online Post Test, Evaluation, and Credit Application form
  4. Please note that to receive credit you must achieve a score of at least 70%.
  5. Credits will be uploaded to CPE Monitor within 4 weeks of activity completion and you will be able to access your credits from the profile you set up with NABP.

Disclosure of Financial Relationships with Ineligible Companies
Center for Independent Healthcare Education and Vemco MedEd fully comply with the Standards for Integrity and Independence in Accredited Continuing Education in development of CME/CPE activities. We require the full disclosure of financial relationships with ineligible companies from all individuals in a position to influence the content of a certified activity, in any amount occurring within the past 24 months. All relevant financial relationship is identified by the provider and mitigated to prevent inserting commercial bias into content. All identified relevant financial relationships are disclosed to the learners prior to the activity. The faculty is further required to disclose discussion of off-label uses in their presentations.



James S. Lewis, PharmD has relevant financial relationships with ineligible companies to disclose:
   Consultant: Merck & Co., Selux Diagnostics, Cidara

Dr. Lewis discusses the off-label use of the following: Uses of FDA approved antibacterials for infections due to resistant organisms that may not be within the current FDA list of indications.

No (other) speakers, authors, planners or content reviewers have any relevant financial relationships to disclose. Content review confirmed that the content was developed in a fair, balanced manner free from commercial bias. Disclosure of a relationship is not intended to suggest or condone commercial bias in any presentation, but it is made to provide participants with information that might be of potential importance to their evaluation of a presentation.

There is no fee to participate in this activity.

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Joint Providership
This activity is jointly provided by Center for Independent Healthcare Education and Vemco MedEd.

Commercial Support

This activity is supported by an educational grant from Merck & Co., Inc.

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